qnst-10q_20180331.htm

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2018

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                 to               

Commission File No. 001-34628

 

QuinStreet, Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

 

77-0512121

(State or Other Jurisdiction of

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Incorporation or Organization)

 

Identification No.)

 

950 Tower Lane, 6th Floor

 

Foster City, California

94404

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

650-578-7700

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

 

(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

Number of shares of common stock outstanding as of April 30, 2018: 47,134,002



QUINSTREET, INC.

INDEX

 

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1. Financial Statements

 

3

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at March 31, 2018 and June 30, 2017

 

3

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the Three and Nine Months Ended March 31, 2018 and 2017

 

4

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss) for the Three and Nine Months Ended March 31, 2018 and 2017

 

5

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Nine Months Ended March 31, 2018 and 2017

 

6

 

 

 

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

 

7

 

 

 

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

15

 

 

 

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

25

 

 

 

Item 4. Controls and Procedures

 

25

 

 

 

PART II. OTHER INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1. Legal Proceedings

 

27

 

 

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors

 

28

 

 

 

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

 

47

 

 

 

Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities

 

47

 

 

 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

 

47

 

 

 

Item 5. Other Information

 

47

 

 

 

Item 6. Exhibits

 

48

 

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

49

 

 

2


PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

 

ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

QUINSTREET, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(In thousands, except share and per share data)

(Unaudited)

 

 

March 31,

 

 

June 30,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

47,089

 

 

$

49,571

 

Accounts receivable, net

 

 

69,066

 

 

 

44,059

 

Prepaid expenses and other assets

 

 

7,074

 

 

 

6,225

 

Total current assets

 

 

123,229

 

 

 

99,855

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

4,259

 

 

 

5,613

 

Goodwill

 

 

62,283

 

 

 

56,118

 

Other intangible assets, net

 

 

9,380

 

 

 

4,105

 

Other assets, noncurrent

 

 

7,848

 

 

 

8,617

 

Total assets

 

$

206,999

 

 

$

174,308

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

30,343

 

 

$

25,205

 

Accrued liabilities

 

 

38,917

 

 

 

26,223

 

Deferred revenue

 

 

555

 

 

 

1,126

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

69,815

 

 

 

52,554

 

Other liabilities, noncurrent

 

 

3,518

 

 

 

3,672

 

Total liabilities

 

 

73,333

 

 

 

56,226

 

Commitments and contingencies (See Note 9)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders' equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock:  $0.001 par value; 100,000,000 shares authorized; 46,982,300 and 45,435,836 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2018 and June 30, 2017

 

 

47

 

 

 

45

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

268,601

 

 

 

263,533

 

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

 

 

(458

)

 

 

(463

)

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(134,524

)

 

 

(145,033

)

Total stockholders' equity

 

 

133,666

 

 

 

118,082

 

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity

 

$

206,999

 

 

$

174,308

 

 

See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements

 

 

3


QUINSTREET, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

(In thousands, except per share data)

(Unaudited)

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

Nine Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Net revenue

 

$

117,925

 

 

$

79,205

 

 

$

292,837

 

 

$

218,253

 

Cost of revenue (1)

 

 

99,982

 

 

 

69,338

 

 

 

251,161

 

 

 

198,803

 

Gross profit

 

 

17,943

 

 

 

9,867

 

 

 

41,676

 

 

 

19,450

 

Operating expenses: (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product development

 

 

3,686

 

 

 

3,147

 

 

 

10,375

 

 

 

10,415

 

Sales and marketing

 

 

2,789

 

 

 

2,243

 

 

 

7,833

 

 

 

7,001

 

General and administrative

 

 

4,889

 

 

 

4,023

 

 

 

13,860

 

 

 

11,848

 

Restructuring charges

 

 

 

 

 

38

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,441

 

Operating income (loss)

 

 

6,579

 

 

 

416

 

 

 

9,608

 

 

 

(12,255

)

Interest income

 

 

45

 

 

 

42

 

 

 

118

 

 

 

99

 

Interest expense

 

 

 

 

 

(31

)

 

 

 

 

 

(322

)

Other income, net

 

 

583

 

 

 

142

 

 

 

869

 

 

 

252

 

Income (loss) before taxes

 

 

7,207

 

 

 

569

 

 

 

10,595

 

 

 

(12,226

)

(Provision for) benefit from taxes

 

 

(90

)

 

 

10

 

 

 

(86

)

 

 

1,386

 

Net income (loss)

 

$

7,117

 

 

$

579

 

 

$

10,509

 

 

$

(10,840

)

Net income (loss) per share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

$

0.15

 

 

$

0.01

 

 

$

0.23

 

 

$

(0.24

)

Diluted

 

$

0.14

 

 

$

0.01

 

 

$

0.21

 

 

$

(0.24

)

Weighted-average shares used in computing net income (loss) per share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

 

46,602

 

 

 

45,507

 

 

 

46,047

 

 

 

45,636

 

Diluted

 

 

51,275

 

 

 

45,722

 

 

 

49,201

 

 

 

45,636

 

 

(1)

Cost of revenue and operating expenses include stock-based compensation expense as follows:

 

Cost of revenue

 

$

1,027

 

 

$

691

 

 

$

2,953

 

 

$

2,390

 

Product development

 

 

495

 

 

 

424

 

 

 

1,455

 

 

 

1,431

 

Sales and marketing

 

 

316

 

 

 

291

 

 

 

921

 

 

 

868

 

General and administrative

 

 

779

 

 

 

671

 

 

 

2,288

 

 

 

2,095

 

Restructuring charges

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

42

 

 

See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements

 

 

4


QUINSTREET, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)

(In thousands)

(Unaudited)

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

Nine Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Net income (loss)

 

$

7,117

 

 

$

579

 

 

$

10,509

 

 

$

(10,840

)

Other comprehensive income (loss):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foreign currency translation adjustment

 

 

22

 

 

 

(41

)

 

 

5

 

 

 

(35

)

Total other comprehensive income (loss)

 

 

22

 

 

 

(41

)

 

 

5

 

 

 

(35

)

Comprehensive income (loss)

 

$

7,139

 

 

$

538

 

 

$

10,514

 

 

$

(10,875

)

 

See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements

 

 

5


QUINSTREET, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(In thousands)

(Unaudited)

 

 

Nine Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Cash Flows from Operating Activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income (loss)

 

$

10,509

 

 

$

(10,840

)

Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

5,977

 

 

 

8,983

 

Provision for sales returns and doubtful accounts receivable

 

 

381

 

 

 

109

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

7,617

 

 

 

6,826

 

Other adjustments, net

 

 

(916

)

 

 

(161

)

Changes in assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

(25,388

)

 

 

4,002

 

Prepaid expenses and other assets

 

 

(29

)

 

 

73

 

Accounts payable

 

 

5,241

 

 

 

1,109

 

Accrued liabilities

 

 

12,646

 

 

 

(1,277

)

Deferred revenue

 

 

(571

)

 

 

(160

)

Other liabilities, noncurrent

 

 

(154

)

 

 

(388

)

Net cash provided by operating activities

 

 

15,313

 

 

 

8,276

 

Cash Flows from Investing Activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Capital expenditures

 

 

(396

)

 

 

(978

)

Business acquisitions

 

 

(14,154

)

 

 

 

Internal software development costs

 

 

(1,533

)

 

 

(1,734

)

Other investing activities

 

 

868

 

 

 

21

 

Net cash used in investing activities

 

 

(15,215

)

 

 

(2,691

)

Cash Flows from Financing Activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from exercise of common stock options

 

 

3,165

 

 

 

 

Withholding taxes related to release of restricted stock, net of share settlement

 

 

(5,115

)

 

 

(765

)

Repurchases of common stock

 

 

(647

)

 

 

(1,766

)

Repayment of revolving loan facility

 

 

 

 

 

(15,000

)

Net cash used in financing activities

 

 

(2,597

)

 

 

(17,531

)

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents

 

 

17

 

 

 

(20

)

Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents

 

 

(2,482

)

 

 

(11,966

)

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period

 

 

49,571

 

 

 

53,710

 

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period

 

$

47,089

 

 

$

41,744

 

Supplemental Disclosure of Cash Flow Information

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash paid for interest

 

 

 

 

 

295

 

Cash paid for income taxes

 

 

234

 

 

 

368

 

 

See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements

 

 

 

6


QUINSTREET, INC.

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

(Unaudited)

 

 

1. The Company

QuinStreet, Inc. (the “Company”) is a leader in performance marketing products and technologies. The Company was incorporated in California in April 1999 and reincorporated in Delaware in December 2009. The Company specializes in customer acquisition for clients in high value, information-intensive markets or “verticals,” including financial services, education, home services and business-to-business technology. The corporate headquarters are located in Foster City, California, with additional offices throughout the United States, Brazil and India. While the majority of the Company’s operations and revenue are in North America, the Company has emerging businesses in Brazil and India.

 

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation

Principles of Consolidation

The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries. Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Unaudited Interim Financial Information

The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements and the notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements as of March 31, 2018 and for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 are unaudited. These unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) and applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) regarding interim financial reporting. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in the financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. Accordingly, these interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto contained in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2017, as filed with the SEC on September 8, 2017. The condensed consolidated balance sheet at June 30, 2017 included herein was derived from the audited financial statements as of that date, but does not include all disclosures, including notes, required by GAAP.

The unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of management, include all adjustments (consisting only of normal recurring adjustments) necessary for the fair presentation of the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheet at March 31, 2018, its condensed consolidated statements of operations for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, its condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss) for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, and its condensed consolidated statements of cash flows for the nine months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017. The results of operations for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2018 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the fiscal year ending June 30, 2018, or any other future period.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the period. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates these estimates, judgments and assumptions, including those related to revenue recognition, stock-based compensation, goodwill, long-lived assets, contingencies, and income taxes. The Company bases these estimates on historical and anticipated results and trends and on various other assumptions that the Company believes are reasonable under the circumstances, including assumptions as to future events. These estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and recorded revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results could differ from those estimates, and such differences could affect the results of operations reported in future periods.

Accounting Policies

The significant accounting policies are described in Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, to the consolidated financial statements included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2017. There have been no significant changes in the accounting policies subsequent to June 30, 2017.

7


QUINSTREET, INC.

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

(Unaudited)

 

Concentrations of Credit Risk

The Company had one client that accounted for 22% and 23% of net revenue for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2018 and 20% and 14% of net revenue for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2017. That same client accounted for 14% of net accounts receivable as of both March 31, 2018 and June 30, 2017. One additional client accounted for 10% of net accounts receivable as of March 31, 2018. No other clients accounted for 10% or more of net revenue for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 or 10% or more of net accounts receivable as of March 31, 2018 and June 30, 2017.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The Company’s financial instruments consist principally of cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable. The fair value of the Company’s cash equivalents is determined based on quoted prices in active markets for identical assets for its money market funds. The recorded values of the Company’s accounts receivable and accounts payable approximate their current fair values due to the relatively short-term nature of these accounts.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In May 2014, the FASB issued a new accounting standard update on revenue from contracts with clients. The new guidance provides that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. In March and April 2016, the FASB amended this standard to clarify implementation guidance on principal versus agent considerations and the identification of performance obligations and licensing. In May 2016, the FASB amended this standard to address improvements to the guidance on collectability, noncash consideration, and completed contracts at transition as well as provide a practical expedient for contract modifications at transition and an accounting policy election related to the presentation of sales taxes and other similar taxes collected from customers. The new standard becomes effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those years with early adoption permitted. The Company does not plan to early adopt, and accordingly, will adopt the new standard effective July 1, 2018. Entities have the option of using either a full retrospective or a modified retrospective approach to adopt the new standard. The Company is continuing to evaluate the overall impact of the new standard on its condensed consolidated financial statements, related disclosures and internal control over financial reporting and has not selected the method of transition. At this time, the Company has not identified any provisions that are expected to have a significant impact on how the Company recognizes revenue and related expenses.

In February 2016, the FASB issued a new accounting standard update which replaces ASC 840, “Leases.” The new guidance requires a lessee to recognize on its balance sheet a right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term and a lease liability representing its lease payment obligations. The guidance also requires a lessee to recognize a single lease cost, calculated so that the cost of the lease is allocated over the lease term, on a generally straight-line basis. The guidance becomes effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those years, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently assessing the impact of this new guidance and has not made any decision with respect to the timing of adoption.

In March 2016, the FASB issued a new accounting standard update on the accounting for share-based payments. The new guidance simplifies several aspects of the accounting for employee share-based payment transactions, including the accounting for income taxes, forfeitures and statutory tax withholding requirements, as well as classification in the statement of cash flows. The guidance became effective in the current fiscal year and did not have an impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.

In November 2016, the FASB issued a new accounting standard update on the disclosure of restricted cash on the statement of cash flows. The new guidance requires the statement of cash flows explain the changes during a reporting period of the totals for cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash, and restricted cash equivalents. Additionally, amounts for restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents are to be included with cash and cash equivalents if the cash flow statement includes a reconciliation of the total cash balances for a reporting period. The guidance becomes effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those years, with early application permitted. The adoption of this standard is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.

In January 2017, the FASB issued a new accounting standard update to simplify the measurement of goodwill by eliminating the Step 2 impairment test. Step 2 measures a goodwill impairment loss by comparing the implied fair value of a reporting unit’s goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. The new guidance requires an entity to compare the fair value of a reporting unit with its

8


QUINSTREET, INC.

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

(Unaudited)

 

carrying amount and recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. Additionally, an entity should consider income tax effects from any tax deductible goodwill on the carrying amount of the reporting unit when measuring the goodwill impairment loss, if applicable. The new guidance becomes effective for goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of this standard is not expected to have an impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.

In May 2017, the FASB issued a new accounting standard update to amend the scope of modification accounting for share-based payment arrangements. The amendments in the update provide guidance on the types of changes to the terms or conditions of share-based payment awards that would be required to apply modification accounting under ASC 718, Compensation-Stock Compensation. The new guidance becomes effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of this standard is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

3. Net Income (Loss) per Share

Basic net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net income (loss) per share is computed by using the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding, including potential dilutive shares of common stock assuming the dilutive effect of outstanding stock options and restricted stock units using the treasury stock method.

The following table presents the calculation of basic and diluted net income (loss) per share:

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

Nine Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

 

(In thousands, except per share data)

 

 

(In thousands, except per share data)

 

Numerator:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic and Diluted:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income (loss)

 

$

7,117

 

 

$

579

 

 

$

10,509

 

 

$

(10,840

)

Denominator:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted-average shares of common stock used in computing basic net income (loss) per share

 

 

46,602

 

 

 

45,507

 

 

 

46,047

 

 

 

45,636

 

Diluted:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted-average shares of common stock used in computing basic net income (loss) per share

 

 

46,602

 

 

 

45,507

 

 

 

46,047

 

 

 

45,636

 

Weighted-average effect of dilutive securities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stock options

 

 

1,967

 

 

 

11

 

 

 

1,138

 

 

 

 

Restricted stock units

 

 

2,706

 

 

 

204

 

 

 

2,016

 

 

 

 

Weighted-average shares of common stock used in computing diluted net income (loss) per share

 

 

51,275

 

 

 

45,722

 

 

 

49,201

 

 

 

45,636

 

Net income (loss) per share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

$

0.15

 

 

$

0.01

 

 

$

0.23

 

 

$

(0.24

)

Diluted (1)

 

$

0.14

 

 

$

0.01

 

 

$

0.21

 

 

$

(0.24

)

Securities excluded from weighted-average shares used in computing diluted net income (loss) per share because the effect would have been anti-dilutive: (2)

 

 

155

 

 

 

5,237

 

 

 

1,444

 

 

 

6,472

 

 

(1)

Diluted net loss per share for the nine months ended March 31, 2017 does not reflect any potential common stock relating to stock options or restricted stock units due to net losses incurred. The assumed issuance of any additional shares would be anti-dilutive.

(2)

These weighted-shares relate to anti-dilutive stock options and restricted stock units as calculated using the treasury stock method and could be dilutive in the future.

 

9


QUINSTREET, INC.

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

(Unaudited)

 

4. Fair Value Measurements and Cash Equivalents

Fair value is defined as the price that would be received on sale of an asset or paid to transfer a liability (exit price) in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The FASB has established a fair value hierarchy that distinguishes between (1) market participant assumptions developed based on market data obtained from independent sources (observable inputs) and (2) an entity’s own assumptions about market participant assumptions developed based on the best information available in the circumstances (unobservable inputs). The fair value hierarchy consists of three broad levels, which gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3).

The three levels of the fair value hierarchy under the guidance for fair value measurement are described below:

 

Level 1 —

Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities. Pricing inputs are based upon quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the reporting entity has the ability to access at the measurement date. The valuations are based on quoted prices of the underlying security that are readily and regularly available in an active market, and accordingly, a significant degree of judgment is not required. As of March 31, 2018 and June 30, 2017, the Company used Level 1 assumptions for its money market funds.

 

Level 2 —

Pricing inputs are based upon quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active, and model-based valuation techniques for which all significant assumptions are observable in the market or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities. As of March 31, 2018 and June 30, 2017, the Company did not have any Level 2 financial assets or liabilities.

 

Level 3 —

Pricing inputs are generally unobservable for the assets or liabilities and include situations where there is little, if any, market activity for the investment. The inputs into the determination of fair value require management’s judgment or estimation of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the assets or liabilities. The fair values are therefore determined using model-based techniques that include option pricing models, discounted cash flow models, and similar techniques. As of March 31, 2018 and June 30, 2017, the Company did not have any Level 3 financial assets or liabilities.

Cash Equivalents

All liquid investments with maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase are classified as cash equivalents on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets. The Company held money market funds of $10.9 million as of March 31, 2018 and $10.3 million as of June 30, 2017 which are classified as cash equivalents.

 

5. Prepaid Expenses and Other Assets

During the three months ended December 31, 2015, the Company entered into a 10-year partnership agreement with a large online customer acquisition marketing company focused on the U.S. insurance industry to be their exclusive click monetization partner for the majority of their insurance categories. The agreement included a one-time upfront cash payment of $10.0 million. The payment is being amortized on a straight-line basis over the life of the contract. As of March 31, 2018, the Company has recorded $1.0 million within prepaid expenses and other assets and $6.5 million within other assets, noncurrent on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheet. As of June 30, 2017, the Company had recorded $1.0 million within prepaid expenses and other assets and $7.3 million within other assets, noncurrent on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheet. Amortization expense was $0.2 million and $0.8 million for both the three and nine months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017.

 

6. Acquisitions

In November 2017, the Company acquired certain assets relating to the auto insurance, home insurance and mortgage verticals of Katch, LLC, an online performance marketing company, for $14.0 million in cash to broaden its customer and publisher relationships. The asset acquisition was accounted for as a business combination. The results of the acquired assets of Katch, LLC have been included in the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements since the acquisition date. The Company allocated the purchase price to identifiable intangible assets acquired based on their estimated fair values. The excess of the purchase price over the aggregate fair value of the identifiable intangible assets acquired was recorded as goodwill and is primarily attributable to synergies the Company expects to achieve related to the acquisition. The goodwill is deductible for tax purposes.

 

10


QUINSTREET, INC.

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

(Unaudited)

 

The following table summarizes the preliminary allocation of the purchase price and the estimated useful lives of the identifiable intangible assets acquired as of the date of the acquisition (in thousands):

 

 

Estimated Fair Value

 

 

Estimated Useful Life

 

Customer/publisher/advertiser relationships

$

4,200

 

 

4-7 years

 

Acquired technology and others

 

3,700

 

 

3 years

 

Goodwill

 

6,100

 

 

Indefinite

 

Total

$

14,000

 

 

 

 

 

Pro forma financial information has not been presented as the acquisition is not expected to have a material effect on any of the periods presented in the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations. 

 

7. Intangible Assets

Intangible assets, net, consisted of the following (in thousands):

 

  

 

March 31, 2018

 

 

June 30, 2017

 

 

 

Gross

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net

 

 

Gross

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net

 

 

 

Carrying

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

Carrying

 

 

Carrying

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

Carrying

 

 

 

Amount

 

 

Amortization

 

 

Amount

 

 

Amount

 

 

Amortization

 

 

Amount

 

Customer/publisher/advertiser relationships

 

$

41,109

 

 

$

(37,069

)

 

$

4,040

 

 

$

36,908

 

 

$

(36,689

)

 

$

219

 

Content

 

 

61,006

 

 

 

(60,975

)

 

 

31

 

 

 

61,521

 

 

 

(60,629

)

 

 

892

 

Website/trade/domain names

 

 

31,112

 

 

 

(29,179

)

 

 

1,933

 

 

 

31,287

 

 

 

(28,723

)

 

 

2,564

 

Acquired technology and others

 

 

40,430

 

 

 

(37,054

)

 

 

3,376

 

 

 

36,733

 

 

 

(36,303

)

 

 

430

 

Total

 

$

173,657

 

 

$

(164,277

)

 

$

9,380

 

 

$

166,449

 

 

$

(162,344

)

 

$

4,105

 

 

Amortization of intangible assets was $0.9 million and $2.7 million for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2018 and $1.4 million and $5.0 million for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2017.

Future amortization expense for the Company’s intangible assets as of March 31, 2018 was as follows (in thousands):

 

Fiscal Year Ending June 30,

 

Amortization

 

2018 (remaining three months)

 

$

796

 

2019

 

 

2,918

 

2020

 

 

2,814

 

2021

 

 

1,491

 

2022

 

 

533

 

Thereafter

 

 

828

 

Total

 

$

9,380

 

 

8. Income Taxes

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Reform Act”) was enacted on December 22, 2017. The Tax Reform Act reduced certain federal corporate income tax rates effective January 1, 2018 and changed certain other provisions. Effective tax rates for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2018 were considered, however due to the Company’s valuation allowance on domestic deferred tax assets and liabilities, there is no material impact to the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements as a result of the federal tax rate reductions for fiscal year 2018.

As a result of the Tax Reform Act, the Company has also considered the impact of the foreign transitions tax and has estimated that no additional provision is necessary. This is a provisional calculation and will be finalized when additional foreign documents are made available. The Company plans to account for any changes in the estimate as a part of the measurement period adjustments in the reporting period such adjustment is made.

The Company recorded a valuation allowance against the majority of the Company’s deferred tax assets at the end of fiscal year 2014 and continues to maintain that full valuation allowance as of March 31, 2018 as the Company believes it is not more likely than not that the net deferred tax assets will be fully realizable.

11


QUINSTREET, INC.

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

(Unaudited)

 

No material provision for taxes was recorded for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2018 as the Company has sufficient deferred tax assets to offset taxable income. The Company recorded an immaterial benefit from taxes for the three months ended March 31, 2017. The Company recorded a benefit from taxes of $1.4 million for the nine months ended March 31, 2017 as a result of a tax refund from an amended state tax return filing.

 

9. Commitments and Contingencies

Leases

The Company leases office space under non-cancelable operating leases with various expiration dates through fiscal year 2024. Rent expense was $0.8 million and $2.4 million for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2018 and $0.8 million and $2.5 million for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2017. The Company recognizes rent expense on a straight-line basis over the lease period and accrues for rent expense incurred but not paid.

Future annual minimum lease payments under noncancelable operating leases as of March 31, 2018 were as follows (in thousands):

 

  

 

Operating

 

Fiscal Year Ending June 30,

 

Leases

 

2018 (remaining three months)

 

$

1,000

 

2019

 

 

2,257

 

2020

 

 

2,681

 

2021

 

 

3,513

 

2022

 

 

3,493

 

Thereafter

 

 

4,381

 

Total

 

$

17,325

 

Guarantor Arrangements

The Company has agreements whereby it indemnifies its officers and directors for certain events or occurrences while the officer or director is, or was, serving at the Company’s request in such capacity. The term of the indemnification period is for the officer or director’s lifetime. The maximum potential amount of future payments the Company could be required to make under these indemnification agreements is unlimited; however, the Company has a director and officer insurance policy that limits its exposure and enables the Company to recover a portion of any future amounts under certain circumstances and subject to deductibles and exclusions. As a result of its insurance policy coverage, the Company believes the estimated fair value of these indemnification agreements is not material. Accordingly, the Company had no liabilities recorded for these agreements as of March 31, 2018 and June 30, 2017.

In the ordinary course of its business, the Company from time to time enters into standard indemnification provisions in its agreements with its clients. Pursuant to these provisions, the Company may be obligated to indemnify its clients for certain losses suffered or incurred, including losses arising from violations of applicable law by the Company or by its third-party publishers, losses arising from actions or omissions of the Company or its third-party publishers, and for third-party claims that a Company product infringed upon any United States patent, copyright or other intellectual property rights. Where practicable, the Company limits its liabilities under such indemnities. Subject to these limitations, the term of such indemnification provisions is generally coterminous with the corresponding agreements but may extend for the duration of the applicable statute of limitations after termination of the agreement. The potential amount of future payments to defend lawsuits or settle indemnified claims under these indemnification provisions is generally limited and the Company believes the estimated fair value of these indemnity provisions is not material. Accordingly, the Company had no liabilities recorded for these agreements as of March 31, 2018 and June 30, 2017.

Lending Commitments

In the third quarter of 2018, the Company entered into an unsecured revolving promissory note as a lender, as part of a strategic partnership intended to increase the Company’s presence in the emerging technology career education market. The principal balance at any time cannot exceed $2.5 million and any outstanding principal balance bears interest at 6.00% payable monthly. Repayment of the principal balance can occur without premium or penalty in whole or in part at any time. In the event of an equity offering by the borrower, any outstanding principal balance may be converted to equity securities at the mutual agreement of the Company and borrower. The principal balance and any accrued interest is due on January 1, 2019. No amounts were outstanding as of March 31, 2018.

12


QUINSTREET, INC.

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

(Unaudited)

 

Letters of Credit

The Company has a $0.4 million letter of credit agreement with a financial institution that is used as collateral for fidelity bonds placed with an insurance company and a $0.5 million letter of credit agreement with a financial institution that is used as collateral for the Company’s corporate headquarters’ operating lease. The letters of credit automatically renew annually without amendment unless cancelled by the financial institutions within 30 days of the annual expiration date.

 

10. Stockholders’ Equity

Stock Repurchases

In November 2016, the Board of Directors authorized a stock repurchase program to repurchase up to 750,000 outstanding shares of its common stock. Under this program, during the nine months ended March 31, 2018, the Company repurchased and retired 30,977 shares of its common stock at a weighted-average price of $3.99 per share, excluding a broker commission of $0.03 per share, at a total cost of $0.1 million. Repurchases under this program took place in the open market and were made under a Rule 10b5-1 plan. This program was completed in July 2017.

In July 2017, the Board of Directors authorized a stock repurchase program to repurchase up to 905,000 outstanding shares of its common stock. In October 2017, the Board of Directors increased the number of outstanding shares that may be repurchased to 966,000 shares. Under this program, no shares were repurchased during the three months ended March 31, 2018. During the nine months ended March 31, 2018, the Company repurchased and retired 62,364 shares of its common stock at a weighted-average price of $8.36 per share, excluding a broker commission of $0.03 per share, at a total cost of $0.5 million. Repurchases under this program took place in the open market and were made under a Rule 10b5-1 plan.

The Company’s accounting policy upon the retirement of treasury stock is to deduct its par value from common stock and reduce additional paid-in capital by the amount recorded in additional paid-in capital when the stock was originally issued.

 

11. Stock Benefit Plans

Stock Incentive Plans

The Company may grant incentive stock options (“ISOs”), nonstatutory stock options (“NQSOs”), restricted stock, restricted stock units, stock appreciation rights, performance-based stock awards, and other forms of equity compensation, as well as performance cash awards, under its 2010 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2010 Incentive Plan”). The Company may grant NQSOs and restricted stock units to non-employee directors under the 2010 Non-Employee Directors’ Stock Award Plan (the “Directors’ Plan”). To date, the Company has issued only ISOs, NQSOs, restricted stock units, restricted stock units with a market condition that requires that the Company’s stock price achieve a specified price above the grant date stock price before it can be eligible for service vesting conditions and performance-based stock awards under its stock incentive plans.

As of March 31, 2018, 18,192,370 shares were reserved and 13,915,013 shares were available for issuance under the 2010 Incentive Plan; 3,989,463 shares were reserved and 1,997,599 shares were available for issuance under the Directors’ Plan.

Stock-Based Compensation

The Company estimates the fair value of stock options at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. Options are granted with an exercise price equal to the closing price of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant.

The weighted-average Black-Scholes model assumptions for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 were as follows:

 

  

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

Nine Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Expected term (in years)

 

 

4.6

 

 

 

4.5

 

 

 

4.6

 

 

 

4.6

 

Expected volatility

 

 

50

%

 

 

46

%

 

 

48

%

 

 

45

%

Expected dividend yield

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Risk-free interest rate

 

 

2.4

%

 

 

1.9

%

 

 

1.9

%

 

 

1.3

%

Grant date fair value

 

$

4.11

 

 

$

1.44

 

 

$

2.04

 

 

$

1.40

 

 

13


QUINSTREET, INC.

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

(Unaudited)

 

The Company estimates the fair value of restricted stock units with a market condition at the date of the grant using the Monte Carlo simulation model. The weighted-average Monte Carlo simulation model assumptions for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 were as follows:

 

  

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

Nine Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Expected term (in years)

 

 

4.0

 

 

 

4.0

 

 

 

4.0

 

 

 

4.0

 

Expected volatility

 

 

50

%

 

 

46

%

 

 

49

%

 

 

45

%

Expected dividend yield

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Risk-free interest rate

 

 

2.4

%

 

 

2.0

%

 

 

2.2

%

 

 

1.1

%

Grant date fair value

 

$

8.03

 

 

$

3.02

 

 

$

6.69

 

 

$

2.99

 

 

The fair value of restricted stock units is determined based on the closing price of the Company’s common stock on the grant date. Compensation expense is amortized net of estimated forfeitures on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the stock-based compensation awards.

 

12. Segment Information

Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker, or decision making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company’s chief operating decision maker, its chief executive officer, reviews financial information presented on a consolidated basis and no expense or operating income is evaluated at a segment level. Given the consolidated level of review by the Company’s chief executive officer, the Company operates as one reportable segment.

 

The following tables set forth net revenue and long-lived assets by geographic area (in thousands):

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

Nine Months Ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Net revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

United States

 

$

115,655

 

 

$

76,863

 

 

$

286,523

 

 

$

213,220

 

International

 

 

2,270

 

 

 

2,342

 

 

 

6,314

 

 

 

5,033

 

Total net revenue

 

$

117,925

 

 

$

79,205

 

 

$

292,837

 

 

$

218,253

 

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

June 30,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Property and equipment, net:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

United States

 

$

3,884

 

 

$

5,116

 

International

 

 

375

 

 

 

497

 

Total property and equipment, net

 

$

4,259

 

 

$

5,613

 

 

 

14


 

ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2017, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains “forward-looking statements” that involve risks and uncertainties, as well as assumptions that, if they do not materialize or if they prove incorrect, could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. The statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q that are not purely historical are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Forward-looking statements are often identified by the use of words such as, but not limited to, “anticipate,” “believe,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “will,” “plan,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” and similar expressions or variations intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements reflect the beliefs and assumptions of our management based on information currently available to management. Such forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause actual results and the timing of certain events to differ materially from future results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified in “Part II —Item 1A. Risk Factors” below, and those discussed in the sections titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors” included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2017, filed with the SEC. Furthermore, such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements.

Management Overview

QuinStreet, Inc. is a leader in performance marketing products and technologies. We specialize in customer acquisition for clients in high value, information-intensive markets or “verticals,” including financial services, education, home services, and business-to-business technology. Our clients include some of the world’s largest companies and brands in those markets. While the majority of our operations and revenue are in North America, we have emerging businesses in Brazil and India.

We deliver measurable and cost-effective marketing results to our clients, typically in the form of a qualified lead, inquiry, click, call, application, or customer. Leads, inquiries, clicks, calls, and applications can then convert into a customer or sale for clients at a rate that results in an acceptable marketing cost to them. We are typically paid by clients when we deliver qualified leads, inquiries, clicks, calls, applications, or customers as defined by our agreements with them. References to the delivery of customers means a sale or completed customer transaction (e.g., bound insurance policies or customer appointments with clients). Because we bear the costs of media, our programs must result in attractive marketing costs to our clients at media costs and margins that provide sound financial outcomes for us. To deliver leads, inquiries, clicks, calls, applications, and customers to our clients, generally we:

 

own or access targeted media through business arrangements (e.g., revenue sharing arrangements) or by purchasing media (e.g., clicks from major search engines);

 

run advertisements or other forms of marketing messages and programs in that media to create visitor responses typically in the form of leads or inquiries (e.g., contact information), clicks (to further qualification or matching steps, or to online client applications or offerings), calls (to our owned and operated call centers or that of our clients or their agents), applications (e.g., for enrollment or a financial product), or customers (e.g., bound insurance policies);

 

match these leads, inquiries, clicks, calls, applications, or customers to client offerings or brands that we believe can meet visitor interests or needs and client targets and requirements; and

 

optimize client matches and media costs such that we achieve desired results for clients and a sound financial outcome for us.

Our primary financial objective has been and remains creating revenue growth from sustainable sources, at target levels of profitability. Our primary financial objective is not to maximize profits, but rather to achieve target levels of profitability while investing in various growth initiatives, as we continue to believe we are in the early stages of a large, long-term market opportunity.

Our business derives its net revenue from fees earned through the delivery of qualified leads, inquiries, clicks, calls, applications, or customers and, to a lesser extent, display advertisements, or impressions. Through a vertical focus, targeted media presence and our technology platform, we are able to deliver targeted, measurable marketing results to our clients.

15


 

Our two largest client verticals are financial services and education. Our financial services client vertical represented 74% and 71% of net revenue for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2018 and 62% and 61% of net revenue for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2017. Our education client vertical represented 17% and 18% of net revenue for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2018 and 24% of net revenue for both the three and nine months ended March 31, 2017. Our other client vertical, consisting of home services and business-to-business technology, represented 9% and 11% of net revenue for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2018 and 14% and 15% of net revenue for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2017. We generated the majority of our revenue from sales to clients in the United States.

One client in our financial services client vertical accounted for 22% and 23% of our net revenue for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2018 and 20% and 14% of our net revenue for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2017. No other client accounted for 10% or more of our net revenue for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017. 

Trends Affecting our Business

Client Verticals

To date, we have generated the majority of our revenue from clients in our financial services and education client verticals. We expect that a majority of our revenue for the remainder of fiscal year 2018 will continue to be generated from clients in these two client verticals. In addition, revenue from our financial services client vertical is expected to increase as a percentage of our total revenue as a result of increased spending by clients in digital media and performance marketing as digital marketing continues to evolve.

Our financial services client vertical has been challenged by a number of factors in the past, including the limited availability of high quality media at acceptable margins caused by acquisition of media sources by competitors, increased competition for high quality media and changes in search engine algorithms. These effects may impact our business in the future again. To offset this impact, we have broadened our product set with enhanced click, lead, call and policy products that have enabled better monetization to provide greater access to high quality media sources. Moreover, we have entered into strategic partnerships and acquisitions to increase and diversify our access to quality media and client budgets. Our financial services client vertical also benefits from more spending by clients in digital media and performance marketing as digital marketing continues to evolve.

Our education client vertical has been significantly challenged by regulations and enforcement activity affecting U.S. for-profit education institutions over the past several years. For example, in July 2015, the Federal Trade Commission initiated an investigation of a publicly traded U.S. for-profit education client with respect to its recruiting and enrollment practices. These and other similar regulatory and enforcement activities have affected and are expected to continue to affect our clients’ businesses and marketing practices, which have and may continue to, result in a decrease in these clients’ spending with us and other vendors and fluctuations in the volume and mix of our business with these clients. To offset the impact these regulatory and investigative activities have had on the U.S. for-profit education clients, we have broadened our product set from our traditional lead business with the addition of better qualified and matched leads or inquiries, clicks and calls; we believe these new enhanced products better match U.S. for-profit education client needs in the current regulatory environment. We have also broadened our markets in education to include not-for-profit schools and international markets in Brazil and India. Moreover, we have entered into strategic partnerships to increase and diversify our access to quality media and client budgets.

Development, Acquisition and Retention of High Quality Targeted Media

One of the primary challenges of our business is finding or creating media that is high quality and targeted enough to attract prospects for our clients at costs that provide a sound financial outcome for us. In order to grow our business, we must be able to find, develop and retain quality targeted media on a cost-effective basis. Consolidation of media sources, changes in search engine algorithms and increased competition for available media has, during some periods, limited and may continue to limit our ability to generate revenue at acceptable margins. To offset this impact, we have developed new sources of media, including entering into strategic partnerships with other marketing and media companies and acquisitions. Such partnerships include takeovers of performance marketing functions for large web media properties; backend monetization of unmatched traffic for clients with large media buys; and white label products for other performance marketing companies. We have also focused on growing our revenue from email, mobile and social media traffic sources.

16


 

Seasonality

Our results are subject to significant fluctuation as a result of seasonality. In particular, our quarters ending December 31 (our second fiscal quarter) are typically characterized by seasonal weakness. In our second fiscal quarters, there is lower availability of lead supply from some forms of media during the holiday period on a cost effective basis and some of our clients have lower budgets. In our quarters ending March 31 (our third fiscal quarter), this trend generally reverses with better lead availability and often new budgets at the beginning of the year for our clients with fiscal years ending December 31.

Our results are also subject to fluctuation as a result of seasonality in our clients’ business. For example, revenue in our clients’ lending businesses is subject to cyclical and seasonal trends. Home sales typically rise during the spring and summer months and decline during the fall and winter months, while refinancing and home equity activity is principally driven by mortgage interest rates as well as real estate values. Other factors affecting our clients’ businesses include macro factors such as credit availability in the market, the strength of the economy and employment.

Regulations

Our revenue has fluctuated in part as a result of federal, state and industry-based regulations and developing standards with respect to the enforcement of those regulations. Our business is affected directly because we operate websites and conduct telemarketing and email marketing, and indirectly affected as our clients adjust their operations as a result of regulatory changes and enforcement activity that affect their industries.

Clients in our financial services vertical have been affected by laws and regulations and the increased enforcement of new and pre-existing laws and regulations. In addition, our education client vertical has been significantly affected by the adoption of regulations affecting U.S. for-profit education institutions over the past several years, and a high level of governmental scrutiny is expected to continue. The effect of these regulations, or any future regulations, may continue to result in fluctuations in the volume and mix of our business with these clients.

An example of a regulatory change that may affect our business is the amendment of the Telephone Consumer Protection Act (the “TCPA”) that affects telemarketing calls. Our clients may make business decisions based on their own experiences with the TCPA regardless of our products and compliance practices. Those decisions may negatively affect our revenue or profitability.

Basis of Presentation

Net Revenue

Our business generates revenue from fees earned through the delivery of qualified leads, inquiries, clicks, calls, applications, customers and, to a lesser extent, display advertisements, or impressions. We deliver targeted and measurable results through a vertical focus that we classify into the following client verticals: financial services, education and “other” (which includes home services and business-to-business technology).

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue consists primarily of media and marketing costs, personnel costs, amortization of intangible assets, depreciation expense, and amortization of internal software development costs related to revenue-producing technologies. Media and marketing costs consist primarily of fees paid to third-party publishers, media owners or managers, or to strategic partners that are directly related to a revenue-generating event and of pay-per-click, or PPC, ad purchases from Internet search companies. We pay these third-party publishers, media owners or managers, strategic partners and Internet search companies on a revenue-share, a cost-per-lead, or CPL, cost-per-click, or CPC, or cost-per-thousand-impressions, or CPM, basis. Personnel costs include salaries, stock-based compensation expense, bonuses, commissions and employee benefit costs. Personnel costs are primarily related to individuals associated with maintaining our servers and websites, our call center operations, our editorial staff, client management, creative team, content, compliance group, and media purchasing analysts. Costs associated with software incurred in the development phase or obtained for internal use are capitalized and amortized in cost of revenue over the software’s estimated useful life.

17


 

Operating Expenses

We classify our operating expenses into three categories: product development, sales and marketing and general and administrative. Our operating expenses consist primarily of personnel costs and, to a lesser extent, professional services fees, facilities fees and other costs. Personnel costs for each category of operating expenses generally include salaries, stock-based compensation expense, bonuses, commissions and employee benefit costs.

Product Development. Product development expenses consist primarily of personnel costs, facilities fees and professional services fees related to the development and maintenance of our products and media management platform. We are constraining expenses generally to the extent practicable.

Sales and Marketing. Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of personnel costs, facilities fees and professional services fees. We are constraining expenses generally to the extent practicable.

General and Administrative. General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel costs of our finance, legal, employee benefits and compliance, technical support and other administrative personnel, as well as accounting and legal professional services fees, and facilities fees. We are constraining expenses generally to the extent practicable.

Interest and Other Income, Net

Interest and other income, net, consists primarily of interest income, interest expense, and other income and expense. Interest income represents interest earned on our cash and cash equivalents, which may increase or decrease depending on market interest rates and the amounts invested. Interest expense is related to our revolving loan facility which matured in June 2017. We have no borrowing agreements outstanding as of March 31, 2018; however interest expense could increase if, among other things, we enter into a new borrowing agreement to manage liquidity or make additional acquisitions through debt financing. Other income and expense includes gains and losses on foreign currency exchange, gains and losses on sales of websites and domain names that were not considered to be strategically important to our business, and other non-operating items.

(Provision for) Benefit from Income Taxes

We are subject to tax in the United States as well as other tax jurisdictions or countries in which we conduct business. Earnings from our limited non-U.S. activities are subject to local country income tax and may be subject to U.S. income tax.

Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates and Judgments

In presenting our consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, we are required to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements, and reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period.

Some of the estimates and assumptions we are required to make relate to matters that are inherently uncertain as they pertain to future events. We base these estimates and assumptions on historical experience or on various other factors that we believe to be reasonable and appropriate under the circumstances. On an ongoing basis, we reconsider and evaluate our estimates and assumptions. Actual results may differ significantly from these estimates.

We believe that the critical accounting policies listed below involve our more significant judgments, assumptions and estimates and, therefore, could have the greatest potential impact on our consolidated financial statements.

 

Revenue recognition;

 

Valuation of goodwill and intangible assets;

 

Stock-based compensation;

 

Income taxes; and

 

Valuation of long-lived assets.

18


 

There have been no material changes to our critical accounting policies, estimates and judgments disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K subsequent to June 30, 2017. For further information on our critical and other significant accounting policies and estimates, see Part II, Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended June 30, 2017, filed with the SEC.

Recently Issued Accounting Standards

See Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, to our condensed consolidated financial statements.


19


 

Results of Operations

The following table sets forth our condensed consolidated statements of operations for the periods indicated:

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

Nine Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

 

(In thousands)

 

Net revenue

 

$

117,925

 

 

 

100.0

%